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Confederation of Indian Universities (CIU)

Care for Earth

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Care for the Earth : Environment, Coast, Water, Energy, Waste, Agriculture, Industry, Population


1.1 Principles
We recognise that the earth’s life support systems are fundamental to maximising human welfare.
In pursuit of our goals, we will ensure equity and social justice, and that those sectors of the community least able to bear the cost of redressing environmental degradation will not be disadvantaged.
In formulating an Environment Policy, we are striving for ecological sustainability through:
a) the protection of biological diversity and the maintenance of ecological integrity;
b) the use of material resources in accordance with the earth’s capacity to supply them and to assimilate wastes arising from their use; and
c) equity within and between generations.
Where there are threats of serious or irreversible environmental damage, decisions should err on the side of caution, with the burden of proof resting with technological and industrial developers to demonstrate that the planned projects are ecologically sustainable.
To become ecologically sustainable, our society must change over time from one which recognises no physical or ecological limits, to one which lives within the capacity of the earth to support it and allows for the earth to sustain the diversity of living things. This means that ingenuity must be used to do more with less, the trend to more efficient use of physical resources and energy must be accelerated, and the limits within which society and the economy function must be explicitly recognised. To enable targets to be set and progress to be measured, these limits must be defined as early as possible. We set the following goals and limits as essential for the achievement of ecological sustainability in our country.
1.2 Goals
We aim to:
a) achieve an ecologically sustainable society, both in India and globally, which lives within the capacity of the earth to supply renewable resources and to assimilate wastes;
b) ensure that human activities maintain the biological diversity of all named organisms at the level of subspecies and of all other organisms, through the adequate protection of the ecological communities of which they are part;
c) hold the amount of water captured for human use from surface aquatic systems and provide environmental flows to all river systems and their dependent ecosystems;
d) limit the amount of water drawn from groundwater systems to rates not greater than they are replenished;
e) reduce emissions of Carbon Dioxide and other greenhouse gases;
f) eliminate human-induced release of ozone-depleting substances in the upper atmosphere;
g) reduce the total quantity of solid, liquid and gaseous wastes (including those from non-point sources) annually disposed into the environment;
h) maintain or restore the natural diversity and productivity of soil in agricultural and pastoral areas;
i) reduce the total amount of land occupied by human infrastructure (transport, buildings, roads) and agriculture (grazing, cropping);
j) facilitate closer liaison among rural, urban, tribal and indigenous peoples in India, such that all might benefit from indigenous knowledge of our land in order to further its management in ways which are sustainable;
k) provide for increased participation by local communities in planning and implementing strategies to protect the environment;
l) increase environmental awareness leading to a desire by all Indians to protect the environment; and
m) apply the principle of intergenerational equity in all environmental programmes.
1.3 Short Term Targets
1.3.1 Biological Diversity
We will work to:
a) ensure funding and enforcement of habitat recovery plans for endangered species;
b) implement, as a matter of urgency, national legislation to control the clearing of native vegetation, with complementary provisions at state and/or local level; and
c) establish a comprehensive and viable system of terrestrial and marine protected areas managed primarily to protect biodiversity; the system will include all remaining areas of high wilderness value, and will also protect wild and scenic rivers which remain in essentially pristine condition;
d) prohibit automatic mining rights and mining exploration on agricultural land.
1.3.2 Forests and Wood Production
We will work to:
a) end logging of old growth and other high conservation value native forests immediately, and over time complete the phase-out of most logging from native forests, including regrowth forests;
b) adopt a Wood Products Industry Plan that will accelerate the transition from native forests to plantations by encouraging the fullest possible domestic processing of wood from plantations, and increased recycling. As a complement to the plan, we will provide a package of retraining and other assistance for workers facing displacement from the native forest-based industry;
c) integrate commercial wood production into diversified agricultural enterprises, and provide marketing mechanisms to facilitate this; and
d) support the development of alternative fibre industries where they are more ecologically sustainable.
1.3.3 Mining and Mineral Exploration
We will work:
a) to prohibit mineral exploration and mining as well as extraction of petroleum and gas in nature conservation reserves, including national parks, wilderness areas and other areas of outstanding nature conservation value;
b) to ban all new sand-mining operations in the coastal zone.
1.3.4 Marine Environments and Fishing
We will:
a) work to establish a comprehensive system of marine reserves in Indian waters; and
b) for existing fisheries, work to immediately prohibit an increase in level of harvest, and determine as a matter of urgency the requirements for ecological sustainability and regulate the catch accordingly, with a substantial safety margin to ensure sustainability
1.3.5 Climate Change and Ozone Depletion
We will work to:
a) reduce emissions of Carbon Dioxide and other greenhouse gases and to have clear national, regional and local energy policies adopted to enable this target to be reached;
b) support an international protocol that makes these greenhouse gas emission targets binding for all industrialised countries; and
c) phase out production of carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloroform, CFCs and halons immediately, and HCFCs and methyl bromide by 2005.
1.3.6 Machinery of Government
We will work to:
a) legislate to establish a Commission with independent funding to examine and report on the environmental performance of public authorities;
b) strengthen the Environment Protection Act 1986.
c) ensure the development of publicly accessible, well resourced, compatible, coordinated networks of data monitoring and data-based legislated State of Environment reporting at local government, state/territory or regional, and national levels;
d) ensure the Government maintains and exercises those constitutional powers which are applicable to the environment, with State environmental policy to be supervised and subject to a minimum set of stringent national standards.
2.1 Principles
Our policies for the management of our coasts are based on the following general principles which underpin ecologically sustainable development:
a) the protection of biological diversity and the maintenance of ecological integrity;
b) the use of material resources in accordance with the earth’s capacity to supply them and to assimilate wastes arising from their use;
c) equity within and between generations; and
d) public participation and involvement.
2.2 Goals
We aim to:
a) increase ecological, economic and social awareness of the importance of coastal and inland waters and of human impacts on them;
b) protect coastal ecosystems;
c) allow the replenishing of stocks of depleted aquatic and coastal life;
d) reduce the harvest of all coastal resources to well within an ecologically sustainable limit;
e) protect fish breeding areas;
f) reduce marine and other aquatic pollution, including from diffuse urban and agricultural sources;
g) increase the involvement of local communities in the management of coastal, onshore and aquatic resources;
h) ensure an integrated approach to management;
i) improve local, national and global coordination of coastal management policies;
j) locate activities that are not coast-dependent away from the coastal zone; and
k) develop long-term strategies to contain urban and tourism development.
2.3 Short Term Targets
We will work to:
a) establish a comprehensive national system of marine reserves in Indian waters by the year 2005;
b) for existing fisheries, immediately prohibit an increase in level of harvest, and determine as a matter of urgency the requirements for ecological sustainability and regulate the catch accordingly, with a substantial safety margin to ensure sustainability;
c) work with the States and Union Territories and/or directly with local governments to complete an environmental audit of the coastal zone by 2005 and an action plan by 2010;
e) implement a national legislative/planning regime to control land use and development in the coastal zone, including a moratorium on new subdivisions until completion of the coastal action plan;
f) ban all new sandmining operations in the coastal zone and inland rivers.
3.1 Principles
Our policies for water are based on:
a) adopting a total catchment approach to the management of water;
b) preserving biodiversity and ecological integrity;
c) recognising that the restructuring of the water supply in India by introduction of free market competition is likely to be accompanied by a severe loss of social and environmental accountability and responsibility; and
d) equitable allocation of water amongst all users.
3.2 Goals
We aim to:
a) decrease per capita consumption of fresh water by increasing efficiency of water use, and expanding opportunities for re-use;
b) stop the discharge of sewage into aquatic systems;
c) maximise the capacity to reuse sewage treatment by-products by reducing pollution at source, minimising waste, and phasing out the discharge of toxic chemicals to sewerage systems;
d) hold the amount of water captured for human use from surface aquatic systems and provide environmental flows to all river systems and their dependent ecosystems;
e) draw water from groundwater systems at rates not greater than they are replenished;
f) ensure equitable access to adequate supplies of clean water for human consumption;
g) apply the principles of least-cost planning to the provision of water, drainage and sewerage services;
h) reduce erosion, sedimentation and pollution of watercourses, wetlands and estuaries, by protecting and restoring native riparian vegetation and improving catchment management;
i) maintain public ownership and control over all major water supply, distribution, drainage and disposal systems;
j) maintain and where possible increase the area of water supply catchments that are free of logging, agriculture and other land uses which degrade water quality
k) provide for full public participation in decisions about water, drainage and sewerage; and
l) provide information and low -interest loan incentive programme to assist rural residents to adopt water conservation practices for domestic and farm use.
3.3 Short Term Targets
We will work to:
a) establish a major new national programme to restore environmental flows to all river systems and improve water quality and implement the programme through national agreements between Central State and/or local governments;
b) use all available powers to maintain major water supply, distribution, drainage and disposal systems in public ownership;
c) cancel all plans to build large-scale new dams; and
d) ensure that drinking water supplies meet or exceed WHO (World Health Organisation) standards, and that their quality is publicly reported regularly.

4.1 Principles
Our Energy Policy is based on these premises:
a) the price of energy should fairly incorporate the full social, health and environmental costs of production and use;
b) there is a finite limit to non-renewable resources available for energy production;
c) the most commonly used methods of energy production have serious, deleterious effects upon the planet, most notably air pollution and contribution to greenhouse gases;
d) energy problems will not be solved by additional conventional power generation capacity;
e) transition to ecologically sustainable energy systems will be achieved through long term planning, research and development, demand management, increased energy efficiency and conservation, and greater reliance on renewable sources of energy;
f) given the environmental impact of large scale dams for hydro-electric schemes, and the high costs and risks to the environment and human health associated with nuclear energy, we do not consider that these systems form a viable long-term basis for putting the energy sector on an ecologically sustainable footing; and
g) achieving sustainability in the use and production of energy will have ramifications for every sector of the economy.
4.2 Goals
We aim to:
a) take a lead role internationally in promoting policies to reduce the impact of climate change due to the enhanced greenhouse effect;
b) assist other countries to develop and meet greenhouse gas emission targets through technology transfer and other forms of assistance;
c) apply integrated resource planning principles to the provision of all non-transport energy services. This is a systematic way of providing energy services to society at least cost;
d) provide for participation by local communities in planning and implementing strategies to provide energy services sustainably;
e) exercise restraint in use of non-renewable fossil fuel reserves in order to leave adequate supplies for future generations;
f) reduce dependence on fossil fuels by
l supporting the phase-out of coal and oil-fired power stations and the development of renewable alternatives;
l decreasing reliance on private motor transport; and
l increasing energy efficiency;
g) address regional equity impacts of making the transition to ecologically sustainable forms of energy production and use, through long term planning and specific development programme for affected regions. Some regions which are currently heavily dependent on the extraction of fossil fuel and the development and maintenance of power generation facilities which use fossil fuel will suffer employment loss in the transition;
h) establish strong national regulation over energy production, distribution and supply to ensure that integrated resource planning is implemented, to control economic, social and environmental impacts in the public interest and to ensure full community consultation;
i) provide incentives to encourage consumers to promote alternative energy technologies;
j) introduce a comprehensive carbon levy; revenue from this levy is to be used to fund public transport as well as the development of alternative energy techniques such as solar thermal power, photo-voltaics and wind power; there will also be compensation for any regressive impact of this levy on low income earners.
4.3 Short Term Targets
We will work to:
a) introduce a carbon levy;
b) use all available mechanisms to optimise electricity generation, distribution and supply infrastructure;
c) introduce tight enforceable regulation of the electricity supply industry to protect the public interest and the environment;
d) reduce emissions of Carbon Dioxide and other greenhouse gases and adopt clear national, regional and local energy policies to enable this target to be reached;
e) support an international protocol that makes these targets binding for all industrialised countries;
f) introduce national legislation to give effect to climate change controls;
g) establish a Sustainable Energy Authority (SEA) to coordinate and oversee programme for research, development and adoption of energy efficiency and renewable energy in India;
h) adopt mandatory energy labelling, and mandatory minimum energy performance standards for all commercial and domestic appliances, equipment and buildings;
i) oppose any new coal-fired power stations and large-scale hydro-electric dams;
j) provide information and low-interest loan programmes to encourage rural residents to choose renewable energy systems for domestic and farm power supplies.

5.1 Principles
Waste management is a growing issue. The accumulation of rubbish presents aesthetic, social and environmental problems and is representative of inefficient resource use. Recycling technology, and profit from the resale of recycled materials, are improving and this is to be encouraged. More important, however, is the encouragement of avoiding waste as well as reducing and reusing at both the manufacturing and consumer levels. A comprehensive waste reduction strategy should be developed addressing each stage of the production and consumption cycle.
When it comes to implementing the strategy Governments have largely relied on voluntary measures, which have proved insufficient, particularly as far as the industrial sector is concerned. We are proposing legal measures as well as economic incentives to encourage waste minimisation.
5.2 Goals
The disadvantages of landfill disposal of waste are obvious to most people. The loss of various resources is accompanied by water pollution, odour and vermin. We support measures that will reverse such a procedure. We want to be part of building a society where:
a) individuals are aware of the importance of reusing whatever can be reused and refusing whatever will eventually go to landfills when another choice is available;
b) manufacturers move towards a whole life cycle approach to resource management and ultimately toward closed loop production systems;
c) in the short term, levies are imposed on non-recyclable containers and other plastic and metal items, with a view to the long-term phase-out of these items;
d) material that can be recycled is collected and then actually used in the production of new goods; and
e) departments, offices and private citizens are given financial incentives to use recycled material and disincentives against their use are examined.
5.3 Short Term Targets
5.3.1 Non-Recyclables
We will support the phasing out of non-recyclable plastics through various means, including the imposition of levies on their use.
5.3.2 Encouraging Reuse Of Containers
We will :
a) propose container deposit legislation to encourage the reuse of glass containers; and
b) propose a levy on disposable plastic carry bags in shops; this is to be paid by the customer, as a means of discouraging wasteful plastic packaging and for encouraging recycling of old bags.
5.3.3 Increasing Recycling
We will:
a) ensure the Government gives preference in purchasing contracts to recycled products or products that can be re-used (for example, recycled paper and the re-filling of computer printing cartridges). The preferred purchasing will be extended to low energy rated products such as equipment that has energy saving features;
b) propose mandatory recycling of waste paper from Government departments and other big paper users;
c) investigate what happens to material collected as recyclables to ensure they are in fact being recycled;
d) propose special facilities for the collection of heavy metals contained in fluorescent tubes and non-rechargeable batteries;
e) implement a levy for non-rechargeable batteries to make rechargeable batteries more cost competitive; and
f) propose the establishment of tyre recycling facilities.
5.3.4 Composting
We will :
a) encourage home composting;
b) support local government provision of composting bins both for collection and for on-site usage; and
c) examine mechanisms for removing disincentives.
5.3.5 Disposal of Harmful Substances
We will :
a) support measures to collect, and whenever possible recycle, material for which dumping can be harmful to fauna or flora;
b) work to establish a National Waste and Pollution Inventory and legislation requiring companies to report any toxic substances released into air, soil or water, with details about when, where and how emitted. The data base should be accessible to the public; and
c) require industry to work towards elimination of toxic waste.
6.1 Principles
Our policy for land management and agriculture is based on:
a) recognising the need for flexibility and diversity in agriculture for environmental and economic reasons;
b) recognising the central role of ecologically sustainable agricultural production to regional economies and the nation;
c) preventing significant or lasting negative impacts on soil and water quality and biodiversity;
d) recognising India’s national and international moral responsibilities as a food producer;
e) supporting trading patterns and local controls which enable environmental and food quality standards to be maintained and improved; and
f) concern for the welfare of animals used in agriculture.
6.2 Goals
We aim to:
a) build on participatory processes which improve land and water catchment management;
b) ensure that economic viability does not force exploitation of labour;
c) ensure that agriculture takes full account of the need for water management as an input to farming and as a resource vital to others;
d) encourage forms of primary production and rural land-use that conserve soil and water, maintain biodiversity, and use minimal amounts of non-renewable energy, agrochemicals and water;
e) encourage the development of value-adding and quality agricultural products;
f) encourage agricultural systems, enterprises and processes which are resilient and diverse;
g) introduce policies to reverse land degradation (erosion, salinity, acidification, nutrient loss, soil structural decline, loss of native vegetation) and ensure that land management practices are compatible with programmes to restore degraded ecosystems and habitat;
h) reduce the dependence of agriculture on chemicals, and provide accurate information about them to farmers and consumers;
i) ensure that the use of genetic engineering is strictly controlled, particularly the transfer of genetic material between species, with the onus of proof on the proponent;
j) require food that has been produced as a result of genetical engineering to be labelled accordingly;
k) improve the welfare of animals used in agriculture;
l) ensure that responsibility for sustainable land management is shared by businesses which process and sell produce, or supply inputs, and by consumers, as well as by landholders and all levels of government;
m) encourage systems which maintain socially and economically diverse and vibrant rural communities;
n) encourage the revitalisation of rural companies and ensure adequate services for physical and social needs;
o) provide for participation in planning and implementing strategies for ecologically sustainable agricultural production;
p) facilitate dialogue between conventional and modern farmers to assist the exchange of land management skills;
q) move towards regional levels of planning and organisation for the management of natural resources;
6.3 Short Term Targets
We are working to establish a clear regulatory environment for agricultural businesses, through national legislation, complemented by state and/or local provisions. Areas to be regulated include:
l clearing, management and restoration of native vegetation;
l importation, propagation and movement of exotic plants and animals; and
l mandatory notification, assessment and monitoring of all genetic engineering proposals, including environmental impact assessment.
We will work to:
a) introduce enforceable national standards for the licensing and use of agricultural chemicals. Such standards shall be compatible with or better than the most rigorous standards for specific chemicals with related use-paths elsewhere in the world;
b) ensure the adoption of national, legally enforceable codes of practice to ensure that animals used in agriculture have the ability to satisfy their natural physical and behavioural needs;
c) target direct funding and other forms of economic assistance to enhance achievement of ecologically sustainable land management;
d) propose changes in the taxation structure for chemical fertilisers and pesticides with the aim of supporting a change to ecologically sustainable farming methods. Levies on these products will be redistributed to the farming community through education, information and other appropriate programmes on integrated and non-chemical pest management and sustainable farming practices;
e) systematically and regularly review the efficacy of existing agricultural assistance and rural land management programme;
f) significantly enhance funding for research and programmes which provide control of environmental weeds and environmentally sound and humane methods for control of feral animals;
g) monitor land degradation and biodiversity on rural private land at a national level;
h) initiate a comprehensive, uniform national mapping of land systems and biota, and their condition, as a base for preparing regional plans for sustainable land management;
i) ensure comprehensive review and restructuring of the arid lands pastoral industry;
j) propose research, promotion and training in farm practices including effective forms of biological pest control that reduce the use and impact of chemicals;
k) immediately transfer responsibility for land protection to the environment portfolio; and
l) implement an action plan for the retirement and/or conservation covenanting of land deemed ecologically unsuited to continuing agricultural use, or of significant ecological value.
7.1 Principles
We hold that :
a) India must find creative solutions to the urgent global problem of developing products and processes to meet an increasing population’s material needs while protecting the natural environment on which all economic activities and social well-being ultimately depend;
b) governments should provide a clear national regulatory framework for environmental protection, and adjust economic incentives accordingly, to encourage industry to commit to major, long-term ecologically sustainable projects;
c) strong regulation can assist business to become more competitive;
d) governments should play an active role both in mediating negative social and economic effects which may result from a shift to ecologically sustainable industries and in developing new opportunities;
e) clean production technology which seeks to minimise potential problems at their source is preferable to costly and often ineffective clean-ups;
f) industry has a crucial role in advancing sustainable development through the adoption of appropriate technology and practices;
g) industry can become more efficient and competitive by adopting Green objectives to reduce raw material consumption and reduce pollution;
h) investment in education and training at all levels and maintenance of the nation’s research facilities at world best standards will provide the human and intellectual capital required to compete in high-skilled, high value-added and innovative green industries; and
i) decisions relating to the impact of industrial activities on the environment are complex and must be supported by accurate, detailed and timely data.
7.2 Goals
We aim to:
a) phase out tax breaks, subsidies and other government policies that encourage resource waste, pollution and environmental degradation;
b) offer positive incentives like tax deductions, rebates and enhanced depreciation allowances to businesses investing in technology or capital expenditure which reduces resource use, waste and pollution;
c) phase in price adjustments for energy, water and landfill that equitably incorporate the social, health and environmental costs of production and use;
d) promote environmental auditing procedures and best practice management to utilities, government enterprises and private sector businesses;
e) encourage unions to pursue environmental improvement plans in the context of enterprise bargaining to enable all employees to participate in and benefit from workplace environmental performance;
f) press manufacturers to move towards a whole life cycle approach to resource management and ultimately toward closed loop production systems;
g) encourage industry to take maximum responsibility for the reduction, sale or recovery of by-products so that external waste treatment becomes the instrument of last resort;
h) incorporate the polluter-pays principle into national legislation;
i) assist consumers to make environmentally conscious evaluations of goods and services by providing accessible, practical, comparative information, including whole of life cycle assessments, and by further strengthening the National Eco-labelling Scheme to define green products;
j) institute preferential purchasing by governments for so defined “green” products;
k) give top priority to research that facilitates the achievement of Ecologically Sustainable Development (ESD), with particular emphasis on energy saving technologies and renewable energy sources;
l) fund research into the linkages between threats to biodiversity and ecological integrity and particular industries or industrial processes;
m) implement a national approach to environmental monitoring and reporting;
n) phase out the exportation of toxic and putrescible waste to landfill; and
o) encourage environmental performance reporting in accounting information and company annual reports. Guidelines need to be established for environmental data labelling on goods and services, including such information as depletion of resources, emissions and waste. All spheres of government should make mandatory the inclusion of environment performance and environment data labelling in tenders from the private as well as public sector.
7.3 Short Term Targets
We will work to:
a) establish a National Ecologically Sustainable Industry Assistance Programme with funding derived from directed superannuation investment and national industry partnership funding;
b) announce a Sustainable Industries Plan, setting out directions, targets, benchmarks, time frames and funding;
c) establish uniform national environmental regulatory standards for air and water quality, including waterways;
d) establish uniform national legislation to ensure clarity and enforcement of environmental protection legislation;
e) implement national strategies for the treatment of hazardous and intractable wastes, with appropriate funding;
f) establish a National Waste and Pollution Inventory and legislation requiring companies to report any toxic substances released into air, soil or water, with details about when, where and how emitted. The Inventory will include transfer data (i.e. statutory authority emissions such as sewage, waste, etc.). The data base will be accessible to the public;
8.1 Principles
Neither the planet, nor any country, can sustain continued human population growth. Four earths would be required for all human inhabitants to live if population grows as the present rate. However, the relationship between people and environments is a complex one, not reducible simply to carrying capacity, but mediated by economic, social, political, cultural and technological considerations. The Indian government should consult with the widest possible range of interest groups to arrive at a population policy which respects human rights.
The basis for India’s population policy, both domestic and global, must be ecological sustainability, intergenerational equity and social justice. A precautionary approach is required in order to take into account the consequences of human impact on the environment.
In order to achieve a sustainable population, action must be taken on consumption levels and technology use as well as population size. We must generate less waste and implement technologies, such as those based on renewable energy, which are more environmentally benign.
The consumption patterns are contributing to global as well as to local environmental problems and we have a responsibility to current and future generations to ensure that we do not knowingly degrade their world. As Indians we also have a responsibility towards non-human species, many of which have already become extinct or endangered. Government policies and taxation systems are tools which can be used to change consumption patterns over the medium to long term, and to protect and manage ecosystems vulnerable to human activity.
India must contribute towards achieving a globally sustainable population and solving the macro aspects of demographic transition of civilisational regions as part of international responsibility. We should set an example by:
a) managing our own population growth in accordance with more equitable consumption patterns in relation to the international context; and
b) redirecting the bulk of aid towards eradicating poverty and towards those programmes which empower women.
In attaining a sustainable population India must shift its involvement in a competitive world economy to a more cooperative, regional, self-sufficient economy based on equality and human rights.
8.2 Goals
An Indian population policy should consider the distribution of human settlements rather than just concentrate upon population size at the national level. The continuing de-settlement of rural areas must be considered in the light of ecological and social sustainability and efforts must be set in place to reverse it in those areas where settlement is ecologically benign. The ecological and social viability of ares expected to experience great growth needs to be safeguarded, and appropriate planning processes set in place. Human settlements should be designed and built to minimise environmental and maximise social well-being. Investing in the social well-being of the entire population should be the main aim of government, so that there are publicly provided services of the highest possible standard. These services should include education, infrastructure, health, employment and income support.
8.3 Short Term Targets
We will work towards:
a) ensuring that Indian family planning programme delivers services in the context of reproductive health programme which increases the power of girls and women to determine their own reproductive lives, and increase the understanding of men of their reproductive responsibilities
b) envisaging a marketing approach to family planning policies.
c) evolving a new communication strategy for family planning and population control for reaching the diverse communities in different States and Union Territories of India.

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